Vitamin E Isomers: provided as DeltaGold®, an annatto-sourced tocopherol-free blend of gamma- and delta-tocotrienols. Tocotrienols have higher antioxidant activity and unique benefits for improving many aspects of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which are not observed with tocopherols. Tocotrienols are not easily found in common diets and their assimilation is impaired by concurrent consumption of tocopherols. Thus, tocopherols are not included in this formula as they can easily be obtained through the consumption of nuts, seeds, avocado, various vegetable oils and many animal foods.
Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine): a dipeptide with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-glycation, anti-ischemic and chelating roles. Contemporary diets provide a range of daily intake of carnosine of 50–250 mg, compared to the 500–3500 mg necessary for biological effects.34 This formula provides 250 mg carnosine, which would add up to 500 mg when added to a healthy diet. In patients with heart failure, carnosine supplementation (500 mg/day for 6 months) resulted in better physical performance, improved quality of life and a trend to increased end-diastolic volume.43 Two reviews summarize human interventions as follows: When using doses in the range of 1–2 g/day, there was a significant reduction of insulin, glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance, and some studies documented improved cognitive function.34,35 In addition to being an antioxidant and heavy metal chelator, carnosine has impressive effects in protecting against tissue glycation.34,35,41 Excessive glycation of proteins or lipids leads to increased inflammation, oxidative stress, impairment of pancreatic beta-cell secretory function, and increased apoptosis in islet cells. Carnosine protects against the detrimental effects of glycation and reduces its occurrence in the first place, which may contribute to improved insulin sensitivity as well as prevention of micro- and macrovascular complications.
Taurine: an amino acid found ubiquitously in all mammalian tissues but not in plant foods. Taurine is synthesized from methionine and cysteine, but biosynthetic capacity is estimated to be very low in humans, making taurine a conditionally essential amino acid. Taurine has been shown in animal and human studies to exert a variety of biological actions, including antioxidation, modulation of ion movement, osmoregulation, modulation of neurotransmitters, and conjugation of bile acids, which contributes to physiological homeostasis. Studies have revealed a protective effect of taurine against the complications of insulin resistance and type 1 and type 2 diabetes by reducing advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and scavenging byproducts of oxidized fats (aldehydes), which results in a reduction of oxidized LDL. Animal studies demonstrate a protective effect regarding retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathy, independent of hypoglycemic effects.46 In a small clinical trial of subjects with type 1 diabetes, taurine supplementation resulted in improved carbohydrate metabolism and a decrease in blood triglycerides within just 30 days.47 A separate study in type 1 diabetics showed that taurine supplementation improved endothelial function, evidenced by restoration of impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation to that of healthy controls.48
R-Lipoic acid: a naturally occurring compound in plants and animals. In humans, it is both a fat- and water-soluble antioxidant, located in the mitochondria, where it supports energy production as a cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. It can be derived in very small amounts from the diet and can be endogenously synthesized as the R isomer, from cysteine and a medium chain fatty acid (octanoic or caprylic acid). Although healthy young humans can synthesize enough α-lipoic acid to scavenge reactive oxygen species and support the recovery of antioxidants such as glutathione, vitamins C and E, synthesis declines naturally with age, and this reduction in lipoic acid may be a contributing factor in endothelial dysfunction.67
Most of the research has been done with the alpha-lipoic acid form (a 50/50 mix of the R- and S- isomers) because it was the only form available for decades. Technological advances have made the R form available in stabilized salt forms, with greater bioavailability than plain R-lipoic acid and the R/S form. Meta-Contayne™ provides 100 mg R-lipoic acid, which produces R-lipoic acid blood levels comparable to those resulting from supplementing with 200 mg alpha-lipoic acid (R/S).59 However, 100 mg standalone R-lipoic acid is likely more clinically effective than 200 mg alpha-lipoic acid because standalone R-lipoic acid does not contain the S-isomer, which competes for docking on mitochondrial enzymes and has inhibitory rather than stimulatory actions. As a result, the overall effect of a mix of both isomers is a reduction of some of the benefits of R-lipoic by S-lipoic acid. Thus, the effects of 100 mg standalone R-lipoic may be similar to those from 200– 300 mg alpha-lipoic acid, although this has yet to be precisely quantified. (See the tech sheet for Stabilized R-Lipoic Acid Supreme for details regarding the R- versus S-isomer.)
A number of reviews have listed doses of 300, 600 or 1200 mg as effective for normalizing glucose metabolism, lipid profile, inflammation, blood pressure and endothelial function.62-65 Many of these effects may be attributed to lipoic acid’s ability to improve age-related decline in mitochondrial function,66 r educe oxidative stress and glycating processes responsible for conditions such as retinopathy, polyneuropathy and diabetic nephropathy,68 as well as to chelate toxic metals.64 During absorption, lipoic acid competes with biotin and pantothenic acid for transport across the gut epithelium. Thus, it is best to supplement with additional R-lipoic or alpha-lipoic separately from these vitamins, ideally on empty stomach, since Meta-Contayne may be best taken with food. 67
For a list of references cited in this document, please visit: http://catalog.designsforhealth.com/assets/itemresources/MetabolicSynergy_Table.pdf http://catalog.designsforhealth.com/assets/itemresources/MetabolicSynergy_References.pdf